Induction
Acas 2010 – Recruitment and induction
Robson 2009 – Effective Inductions
Hemsley 2012 – All Aboard – Peer accessed journal
Wold 2010 – Induction survey
Armstrong 2012 – Aims of induction prejoining, organisation department, support and review
Torrington et al 2014 – Importance of setting expetations
Rollag et al 2005 – Settling in period 8 weeks admin, 20 professional, 26 leaders
Kirk Patrick 1959 – 4 levels of L&D evaluation, reaction, learning, job behaviour and results.

Appraisals
CIPD 2017 – Measurement, feedback, positive reinforcement, exchange of views and agreements.
Kluger and DeNisi 1996 – One third performance feedback resulted in decreased performance.
Hutchinson 2013 – Evaluating performance (past) developmental (need to look forward) Accuracy and critical incident techniques.
Brown et al 2010 – Low performance appraisals experience more likely to be dissatisfied with their job.
Longenecker 1997 – Deflate/inflate ratings to show power or effectiveness
Grint 1993 – Halo Horns effect, crony effect – personal relationships, Veblen effect – rating everyone in the middle and recency – recent events influence the assessment.
ACAS 2008/2016 effectively trained. CIPD 2017 Performance appraisal fact sheet.

Reward
Armstrong 2009 – Value to the organisation and help the organisation to achieve its strategic goals.
Should assist with improving organisation performance establishes fairness and retaining employees.
Total reward Financial – Base pay ,contingent pay, benefits Non-financial – Achievement, autonomy, recognition, developmental, work life balance, career development, work environment, involvement.
Equal pay act 1970 and equality act 2010 CIPD 2017 & ONS 2015
Performance related pay in favour of: Lawler 2000 – Motivation effect, Armstrong 2009 – Retention of high performers and removal of poor performers. Communicates expectations of employee behaviours.
Against – Kohn 1993 demotivational punishment discourages risk taking, heery 2000 – discrimination issues, Bichard 1998 & Makinson 2000 – PRP ineffective at increasing performance in the public sector.
Competency related pay
Thomson 2002 Competiveness is driven by social skills
Perkins and White 2008 – Rewards behaviours and attitudes
Sparrow 1996 – Difficult to measure

Skill based pay
Armstrong 2009 – Service related pay,
Expensive, direct link between their pay progressions and the skills acquired and can use effectively.
Torrington et al 2008 0 flexibility and job security.

Retention and labour turnover
Carbery and Cross 2013 “natural wastage” people who leave and need to be replaced to continue production/service. Push and Pull factors move, family. Dislikes work, manager, promotion or development.
Armstrong 2012 – Employee turnover is the rate at which people leave an organisation
Taylor 2013 – Where and Why, exit interviews, staff attitude surveys, stayer surveys.
Torrington et al 2014 – Retention better deals perceived better than elsewhere.
CIPD 2009 – Family friendly
Green et al 2000 – Training
Torrington et al 2014 – Line management / managing expectations
Gerhatt 2009 – attractive awards lower turnover rates
Griffeth and Hom 2001 – job enrichment, induction, reward, inter-role conflict
Torrington et al 2004 – pay, managing expectations, family friendly, and quality of line management.

Performance and HRM
Kepes and Delery 2007 – HRM strategic approach to the management people, works with line managers
Beardwell and Claydon 2007 – Link between HR practise and business performance
Purcell et al 2003 – backed up by Appelbaums et al 2000 (skill enhancement) AMO model ability and skill (recruitment and selection, training) motivation (extrinsic and intrinsic rewards) opportunity to participate (teamwork, autonomy). Policies linked to AMO – motivation and satisfaction influencing discretionary behaviour and effort.

Employment security
Torrington et al 2014 – explanation and honesty of job security.
Effective HR planning:
Marchington & Wilkinson, Millward et al 2000, wood and wall 2007 – Lean thinking, employee involvement and participation.
Dobbins 2001 – increased autonomy – positive impressions on sense of achievement
Status differences – Wickens 1987 equality manager vs staff
Marchington and Wilkinson 2012 – Career development both horizontal and vertical.
Purcell & Hutchinson 2008 – HR practices influenced by organisational strategy actual vs intended sense of obligation
Good HR practices can be negated by poor management behaviour.
Torrington 2011 – impact on bottom line, improve people management by front line managers
Hutchinson and Purcell 2003 – line managers and HR plus performance in appraisal, training, coaching/guidance, involvement and communication, work/life balance, recognition (evidence shows these are often ineffectively conducted).